Tagged: crusades


Troubadour Lyrics and Chronicles: Writing the Crusades

Individual examinations of troubadour lyrics and chronicles would not situate the crusading movement within its social context; together, however, troubadour lyrics and chronicles can be used in tandem to form a perspective on the Crusades. Troubadour lyrics – precisely crusading lyrics – allow insight into the author’s motivation and intended audience during...


The Fourth Crusade: The Crusaders Conquer… Constantinople?

In 1204 the crusading army did the unthinkable – it sacked Constantinople. The conquering of a Christian city, the nucleus of the Byzantine Empire, is an event that has been seen in two different lights. Was it a series of unfortunate, unavoidable occurrences or was it one that was grasped...


The Third Crusade: The Fight for the Kingdom of Heaven

In 1187 Outremer (the collective lands conquered by the crusaders) experienced its first major loss since Edessa in 1147 – the loss of Jerusalem at the hands of Saladin. Jerusalem was the primary aim of the First Crusade, and after this event would be the cause of all subsequent major...


The Second Crusade: The Sins of the Sons

After the success of the First Crusade, western Christendom had successfully established a presence in the Levant. By 1109, four major Latin states were under their crusaders’ control: the Principality of Antioch, the County of Edessa, the County of Tripoli, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It was from these states...


The First Crusade: A Beginning in 1095

Preceded by a visit from Byzantine officials, Pope Urban II set out to launch a holy expedition into the East. The historiography that surrounds this expedition attests to the reach of its conclusion: the capture of Jerusalem in 1099. But was this Urban’s sole motivation or did he have underlying reasons for launching the crusade?


The Crusades: A Historiographical Evolution

The Crusades were extraordinary events: armed pilgrimages sent to conquer and defend the Holy Land in the name of Christ. Many Western European nations can identify with the crusading movement. England boasts much of King Richard the Lionheart and his strong leadership of the Third Crusade. The Crusade of 1197...